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Het zijn rare tijden met wat er nu gebeurt met een nieuw Coronavirus. We hebben eerder met SARS en MERS kennisgemaakt en hopelijk daarvan wat geleerd. Infectieziekten zijn een fascinerend “kindje” van mij geworden en ik heb zowel persoonlijk als zakelijk heel wat geleerd over de schade die virussen, bacterieen en schimmels kunnen aanrichten. Ik heb voor verdere uitleg twee artikelen bijgesloten. Een algemeen artikel over het coronavirus (wikipedia, John Hopkins University en een verslag gepresenteerd door Prof. Mazen Kherallah op ICU Reach.
Wat ik persoonlijk merk is dat men weinig aandacht schenkt aan preventie van een infectie. Het is goed dat het RVIM, de Federatie van Medisch Specialisten en de overheid (wel wat laat) duidelijke regels gaat opstellen om erger te voorkomen.
Waarom dan? Zo besmettelijk is dat virus toch niet, of wel, we weten het niet goed en de statistiek beduvelt ons ook. De enige remedie is om mensen gespreid ziek te laten worden (er is nog geen therapie of vaccine beschikbaar), het zorgstelsel was al overbelast en de hulpverleners (ook mensen die ziek kunnen worden) kunnen gewoon geen goede zorg meer verlenen als er meer patienten met infecties worden opgenomen.
Het advies is duidelijk:
– was handen, steriliseer veel gebruikte voorwerpen met alcohol (winkelwagen, deuropener etc.).
– voorkom bezoek aan openbare gelegenheden.
– meld je klachten telefonisch bij huisarts.
– zit deze periode uit, als de piek geweest is kan er beter beoordeeld worden wat er verder kan en moet gebeuren.
Sterkte allemaal, let op uw zaak
What to know about coronaviruses?
Coronaviruses are types of viruses that typically affect the respiratory tract of mammals, including humans. They are associated with the common cold, pneumonia, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and can also affect the gut.
What are coronaviruses?
Human coronaviruses (HCoV) were first identified in the 1960s in the noses of patients with the common cold. Two human coronaviruses are responsible for a large proportion of common colds OC43 and 229E. Coronaviruses were given their name based on the crown-like projections on their surfaces. “Corona” in Latin means “halo” or “crown.”
Among humans, the infection most often occurs during the winter months as well as early spring. It is not uncommon for a person to become ill with a cold that is caused by a coronavirus and then catch it again about four months later.
This is because coronavirus antibodies do not last for a very long time. Also, the antibodies for one strain of coronavirus may be useless against other strains.
Cold- or flu-like symptoms usually set in from two to four days after coronavirus infection, and they are typically mild. However, symptoms vary from person to person, and some forms of the virus can be fatal.
- a runny nose
- a cough
- in rare cases, fever
- a sore throat
- muscle pain
- exacerbated asthma
Human coronaviruses cannot be cultivated in the laboratory easily, unlike the rhinovirus, another cause of the common cold. This makes it difficult to gauge the coronavirus’ impact on national economies and public health.
There is no cure, so treatments include taking care of yourself, over-the-counter (OTC) medication and preventive measures:
- Rest and avoid overexertion
- Drink enough water/tea.
- No smoking and smoky areas.
- Take acetaminophen, ibuprofen or naproxen to reduce pain and fever.
- Clean surfaces and washing hands to prevent contamination
- Avoid social events with risk factors of contamination
The virus responsible can be diagnosed by taking a sample of respiratory fluids, such as mucus from the nose, or blood.
Different types of human coronaviruses vary in the severity of the illness they cause and how far they can spread.
There are currently seven recognized types of coronavirus that can infect humans.
Common types include:
229E (alpha coronavirus) – NL63 (alpha coronavirus) – OC43 (beta coronavirus) – HKU1 (beta coronavirus)
Rarer, more dangerous types include MERS-CoV, which causes Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV), the coronavirus responsible for SARS. In 2019, a dangerous new strain started circulating, but it does not yet have an official name. Health authorities are currently referring to it as 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCov).
There has not been a great deal of research on how a human coronavirus spreads from one person to the next. However, it is believed that viruses transmit using secreted fluid from the respiratory system.
Coronaviruses can spread in the following ways:
- Coughing and sneezing without covering the mouth can disperse droplets into the air, spreading the virus.
- Touching or shaking hands with a person that has the virus can pass the virus from one person to another.
- Making contact with a surface or object that has the virus and then touching your nose, eyes, or mouth.
- On rare occasions, a coronavirus may spread through contact with feces.
People in western world are more likely to contract the disease in the winter or fall. The disease is still active during the rest of the year. Young people are most likely to contract a coronavirus, and people can contract more than one infection over the course of a lifetime. Most people will become infected with at least one coronavirus in their life.
It is said that the mutating abilities of the coronavirus are what make it so contagious.
To prevent transmission, be sure to stay at home and rest while experiencing symptoms and avoid close contact with other people. Covering the mouth and nose with a tissue or handkerchief while coughing or sneezing can also help prevent the spread of a coronavirus. Be sure to dispose of any used tissues and maintain hygiene around the home.
Status about 2019-nCov
In 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) started monitoring the outbreak of a new coronavirus. Authorities first identified the virus in Wuhan, China. They have named it 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCov).
More than 1,000 people have contracted the virus in China. Health authorities have identified several other people with 2019-nCov around the world, including multiple individuals in the United States. On January 31, 2020, the virus passed from one person to another in the U.S. The World Health Organization (WHO) have declared a public health emergency relating to 2019-nCov.
Since then, 2019-nCov has started causing disruption in 24 other countries after a member of staff contracted the virus. At the time of writing, they are one of eight people with the virus.
Some of the first people with 2019-nCov had links to an animal and seafood market. This initially suggested that animals transmit the virus to humans. However, people with a more recent diagnosis had no connections with or exposure to the market, suggesting that humans can pass the virus to each other.
Information on the virus is scarce at present. In the past, respiratory conditions that develop from coronaviruses, such as SARS and MERS, have spread through close contacts.
However, while some viruses are highly contagious, it is less clear with coronaviruses as to how rapidly they will spread.
Symptoms vary from person to person with a 2019-nCov infection. It may produce few or no symptoms. However, it can also lead to severe illness and may be fatal. Common symptoms include:
fever – breathlessness – cough
It may take 2–14 days for a person to notice symptoms after infection.
No vaccine is currently available for 2019-nCov. However, scientists have replicated the virus. This could allow for early detection and treatment in people who have the virus but are not yet showing symptoms.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was a contagious disease caused by the SARS-CoV coronavirus. It typically led to a life-threatening form of pneumonia.
The virus started off in the Guangdong Province in southern China in November 2002, eventually reaching Hong Kong. From there, it rapidly spread around the world, infecting people in 37 countries.
SARS-CoV is unique. It can infect both the upper and lower respiratory tract and can also cause gastroenteritis.
The symptoms of SARS develop over the course of a week and start with a fever. Early on in the condition, people develop flu-like symptoms, such as:
dry coughing – chills – diarrhea – breathlessness – aches
Pneumonia, a severe lung infection, may develop afterward. At its most advanced stage, SARS causes failure of the lungs, heart, or liver.
During the epidemic, there were 8,098 confirmed cases of SARS with 774 fatalities. This is equal to a mortality rate of 9.6 percent. Complications were more likely in older adults, and half of all infected people over the age of 65 years who became ill did not survive. It was eventually brought under control in July 2003.
MERS, caused by the MERS-CoV coronavirus, was first recognized in 2012. This severe respiratory illness first surfaced in Saudi Arabia and, since then, has spread to other countries. The virus has reached the U.S., and the largest outbreak outside the Arabian Peninsula occurred in South Korea in 2015.
Symptoms include fever, breathlessness, and coughing. The illness spreads through close contact with people who have already been infected. However, all cases of MERS are linked to individuals who have recently returned from travel to the Arabian Peninsula.
MERS is fatal in 30 to 40 percent of people who contract it